Khaing Khaing Soe
May Myat Mon

Khin Seint Seint Aye

Theme            :           Healthy River

Objective:       More Information on Current Water Quality Profile

Case Study:    Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality Profile in Upstream Ayeyarwady River

Link   :            This outcome will laid foundation for further contribution to water quality monitoring and management system development in Upstream Ayeyarwady River

Problem Statement: Limited Information on Water Quality Profile

Research Questions: The purpose (main research questions)

  1. What are the current water quality water quality profile of Upstream Ayeyarwady River
  2. What are the potential threats or sources of water quality degradation?
  3. What are the perceptions of local communities about current river water situation in term of turbidity, driving forces and possible pressures on them for ensuring a better and healthier head water environ of Ayeyarwady River at Kachin Land.

Research Methodology

Study Area Description

Ayeyarwady River originates at the convergence of the May Kha and Mali Kha rivers, about 50 km north of Myitkyina, Kachin State. The headwaters of both these rivers originate in the southeastern Himalayas.  In accordance with the World Wildlife Foundation, Myit Sone area (traditionally called Malizup) is one of the world’s last great wilderness areas. Dedicated conservation programs are required to maintain the integrity of the Ayeyarwady natural beauty. However Baseline data needs to be obtained through scientific studies in order to implement efficient conservation programs. May Kha River is normally difficult to navigate due to fast-flowing current but Malikha river  is navigable to upstream with  few rapids.


Figure, (1) Location Map of Study Area


Figure, (2) Proposed Methodology Framework

Site observation

Preliminary Site Survey  will be undertake to have knowledge of the topography, water depths, and general environmental setting of upstream environment at Mali zup (Confluence of Mali Kha and  N’ Mai Kha) and  its head water environs  . The site observation will also include identification and selection of sampling site and identification of potential threats and pollution sources in line with space monitoring (i.e, Remote Sensing).

Water Quality Sampling and Monitoring Sampling

 At selected sites, composite water samples will be collected with 1L sampling bottles to represent from each sampling site and will send to laboratory for further analysis within 24 hours after sampling.

Water Quality Parameters

Water Parameters Unit Analytical Method
pH pH  Meter
Temperature ˚C
Electrical Conductivity µS/m Conductivity Meter
Turbidity NTU Hach Turbidimeter
TSS mg/l
TDS mg/l
DO mg/l DO Meter
BOD mg/l Azide Modification Method (Lab Analysis)
NH3-N mg/l Titration 
PO3-P mg/l Persulphate Digestion
E. coli, Total coliform     MPN/100ml MPN Method
(NO3-N)         mg/L               Mg/l Cadmium reduction (Hach)
Mercury (Hg) ppm

Assessment of Water Quality Index

Assessment of water quality means the overall process of evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological nature of water in relation to natural quality, human effects and intended uses, particularly uses which may affect human health and the health of the aquatic system itself. And then , water quality monitoring can be defined as the actual collection of information at set locations and at regular intervals in order to provide the data which may be used to define current conditions, establish trends, etc.( Bartram and Balance, 1996).

Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method

                Weighted arithmetic water quality index method classified the water quality according to the degree of purity by using the most commonly measured water quality variables. The method has been widely used by the various scientists and the calculation of WQI was made by using the following equation:

WQI = ∑ QiWi /  Wi

The quality rating scale (Qi) for each parameter is calculated by using this expression:

Qi = 100[(Vi Vo/ Si Vo)]

Vi =     estimated concentration of ith parameter in the analyzed water

Vo=     the ideal value of this parameter in pure water
(Vo = 0, except pH =7.0 and DO = 14.6 mg/l)

Si is recommended standard value of ith parameter.

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